Turkish culture Hofstede
Due to the expanding trend to globalise software development organisations need to understand and address issues which previously did not arise. Cultural distance has been identified as one of these key issues. This paper presents the results from a three year study which identified the implications of misunderstanding and not addressing cultural differences. This work was undertaken within a multinational organisation which offshored part of their software development process from Ireland to Malaysia. Of particular relevance was where cultural difference was initially perceived as something which could be leveraged. The opposite proved to be the case and resulted in key Malaysian personnel being forced to leave the organisation. This was due to their cultural aversion to decline requests to undertake additional work. This resulted in serious implications for the success of the projects concerned. Ultimately the requirement for cultural training was recognized by the management and staff at both locations.
"Some ideas, long discredited by mainstream academics such as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or the theory of Stable Cultural Dimensions of national cultures continue to capture the public's imagination. Regrettably, little empirical evidence has been found supporting these hypotheses. The relationship between income level and environmental quality postulated by the EKC can not be proven in a statistically rigorous manner. The concept of culture remains unclear, and is contested. The hypothesis of stable national cultural preferences along national lines remains similarly unconvincing, and the correlation with environmental performance is weak at best.
Using the Environmental Performance Index Pilot Trend country data published in 2013, for the decade from 2000 to 2010 we found a significant improvement of around 20% in Environmental Health Index for all 132 countries, measured as a composite of the effect on human health of indoor air pollution, particulate matter PM2.5, access to drinking water, access to sanitation and child mortality. These variables respond to health and environmental policies and infrastructure construction, and affect an electorate's welfare directly. Regrettably, we could not establish any significant improvement for the Ecosystem Vitality Index for this group of countries. Apparently, on average the impact of policies on the environment is still not sufficient to off-set the negative impacts of economic growth as well as poverty on the environment.
During roughly the same decade, in the World Values Survey we found a significant negative shift of around 8% in our environmental value measure for 29 countries, expressed as a diminished willingness to pay for an increase in environmental taxes between the 3rd (around 1995) and 5th (around 2005) wave of country surveys. These 29 countries account for 62% of the world's population. It seems that when Environmental Health improves and countries grow richer, the willingness to pay or environmental policies decreases.
Although it has proven to be difficult to put any meat on the cultural dimensions or value orientation theories, we found some stimulating relationships between development, environment and culture which deserve further research. Better understanding of these relationships is essential to prevent implementation of fundamentally misguided policies.