Turkish Air Force history
The Turkish Air Force has a vivid and honorable history. The Turkish military first encountered hostile military aircraft in 1911 when Italy invaded Libya, at that time part of the Ottoman Empire. Italian aircraft performed reconnaissance and bombing missions against the Ottoman Army. Ottoman forces, however, had the honor of being the first to force down a warplane and capture the pilot.
Earlier that year, the Turkish Minister of War directed establishment of an aircraft commission in Istanbul. The first airfield was near Istanbul and is now Ataturk International Airport. Two hangars were built, and training on and purchase of French, German and British aircraft began.
The fledgling TAF saw action in the Balkan War in September 1912 to October 1913, with only 17 aircraft, which primarily flew reconnaissance. In 1914, the first U.S. aircraft, a Curtiss seaplane, was sold to Turkey. Soon, however, Europe would be embroiled in the Great War. At the beginning of the war, Turkey had only five aircraft and six pilots. With the help of German and Austrian allies, the TAF expanded to 450 aircraft, many piloted by Germans.
At the war's end, Turkey had almost 100 pilots and 17 land-based and three seaplane companies of four aircraft each. During the conflict, Turkish and German pilots had considerable success, sinking several British ships in the Aegean and destroying numerous British, French and Russian aircraft. Following the Armistice, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled, and most of the Army, including the air forces, disarmed.
Western powers moved to occupy many of the regions of Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal, later known as Ataturk, rallied forces against the invaders. In 1919, at the beginning of the national struggle, the Turks had no aircraft. In March 1920, the TAF was reestablished when pilots and others met to assemble aircraft from smuggled parts. Soon there were 17 aircraft, a mixture of Albatros, Breguet, Fiat, De Havilland and Spad models, which made limited strikes and conducted reconnaissance.
Ottomans Looking West?: The Origins of the Tulip Age and its Development in Modern Turkey (Library of Ottoman Studies)
Book (Tauris Academic Studies)
Kosovo Peace Accord
Kosovo Peace Accord (Z, July '99)
By Noam Chomsky
On March 24, U.S.-led NATO air forces began to pound the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FYR, Serbia and Montenegro), including Kosovo, which NATO regards as a province of Serbia. On June 3, NATO and Serbia reached a Peace Accord. The U.S. declared victory, having successfully concluded its '10-week struggle to compel Mr. Milosevic to say uncle,' Blaine Harden reported in the New York Times. It would therefore be unnecessary to use ground forces to 'cleanse Serbia' as Harden had recommended in a lead story headlined 'How to Cleanse Serbia
Yet another non-native Muslim
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
By Tariq Ali
How can one analyse the evolution of Afghanistan since the Soviet invasion and the victory of the Taliban?
The PDPA (---the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan----AFghan Communist Party) which had a strong base in the army and air force carried out a coup d'etat in 1978, toppling the corrupt regime of Daoud. The people welcomed the change. The PDPA was initially popular. It pledged important social reforms and democracy. But the latter promise was never upheld even though important educational reforms were pushed through such as free education and schools for girls
Biggest peace action Amsterdam since 1980s
Sent: Monday, October 01, 2001 10:28 PM
Subject: Biggest peace action Amsterdam since 1980s
Biggest peace action in Amsterdam since 1980s: stop war drive!
Over ten thousand people filled Amsterdam's medieval central square,
the Dam, on Sunday 30 September. They were there for an open air meeting
for peace, against
all terrorism, and against xenophobia. It had been organized with no help
corporate/quasi governmental media; by the Internet/e-mail in spite of
putting up posters, in spite of police not liking that sometimes
Crisis in the Balkans
Crisis in the Balkans
Kosovo is another illustration of U.S. policy
to act in such a way as to escalate violence
By Noam Chomsky
On March 24, U.S.-led NATO forces launched cruise missiles and bombs at targets in Yugoslavia, plunging America into a military conflict that President Clinton said was necessary to stop ethnic cleansing and bring stability to Eastern Europe, lead stories in the press reported. In a televised address, Clinton explained that by bombing Yugoslavia, we are upholding our values, protecting our interests, and advancing the cause of peace.
In the preceding year, according to Western sources, about 2,000 people had been killed in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo and there were several hundred thousand internal refugees. The humanitarian catastrophe was overwhelmingly attributable to Yugoslav military and police forces, the main victims being ethnic…
Greek islanders visit Turkey for grocery shopping — Daily Sabah
.. many people come to Turkey from the Greek Islands including Lesbos. "Greek tourists come to Kemeraltı between 10:00 a.m. and 04:30p.m. Within this time period, they spend [quite a bit].
It Began with Tulip - Lale Ile Basladi (The History of Four Centuries of Relationship Between Turkey and Netherlands in Pictures)
Does any body know for sure the origins of the tulip? i heard it orginated in turkey others say holland some say even persia...or china.. and where they alwasy only one colour originaly?
john..mentioned the black tulip developed in holland.i read once that sulliemayn the 2 ..attempted to grow a black tulip many times failing but at last he succeded..it also reminds me of the black rose of cairo..in 1,0001 arabian tales/nights..there is a famous picture of sulliyman the 2 holding a tulip the painting is a little faded on the tulip colour i swear the tulip is black but it looks red..but…
This is such an interesting question.. One more thing I learn on this site. I actually thought it was the opposite of what firecracker said. I thought that tulips were from Holland and they became famous here.. (lale devri).. Ver interesting that tulips are Ottoman, they are so popular now.. :)
What are some differences between the ottoman Tulip Period and the Dutch Tulip mania?
Ottoman Tulip Period
Lasting from 1718 to 1730, the Tulip Era was a transitory period in the Ottoman Empire that was marked by cultural innovation and new forms of elite consumption and sociability. The Tulip Era (in Turkish, Lâle Devri) coincides with the latter half of the reign of Sultan Ahmed III (ruled 1703–1730), specifically the twelve-year grand vizierate of Ahmed's son-in-law (damad), Nevşehirli Ibrahim (d. 1730). The period is known for several breakthrough achievements, including the first Muslim printing press in the empire, various innovations in the arts and urban…