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Turkish alphabet history

Posted on October 9, 2014 – 09:33 am

And the Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras.


The letters of the Turkish alphabet are:

Of these 29 letters, eight are vowels (A, E, I, İ, O, Ö, U, Ü); the 21 others are consonants.

The letters Q, W, and X of the ISO basic Latin alphabet do not occur in the Turkish alphabet (replacements for these letters are , and KS), while dotted and dotless I are distinct letters in Turkish so that "i" does not become "I" when capitalized.

Turkish also uses a, i and u with the circumflex:

  • â for /aː/ and/or to indicate that the consonant before â is palatalized
  • î for /iː/ (no palatalization implied)
  • û for /uː/ and/or to indicate palatalization.

The names of the vowel letters are the vowels themselves, whereas the names of the consonant letters are the consonant plus e.

The one exception is ("yumuşak ge"; i.e. "soft g"):

, be, c, ç, de, , fe, ge, yumuşak ge, he, , , je, ke, le, me, ne, , , pe, re, se, şe, te, , , ve, ye, ze

Turkish orthography is highly regular and a word's pronunciation is always completely identified by its spelling. The following table presents the Turkish letters, the sounds they correspond to in International Phonetic Alphabet and how these can be approximated more or less by an English speaker.

Letter English
/a/ As in father /m/ As in man
/b/ As in boy /n/ As in nice
/d͡ʒ/ As in joy /o/ As in more
/t͡ʃ/ As ch in chair /ø/ As in set, but with lips rounded
/d/ As in dog /p/ As in pin
/e/ As in red /ɾ/ As in rat
/f/ As in ar /s/ As in song
/ɡ/, /ɟ/ As in got /ʃ/ As sh in show
/ː/, /‿/, /ʲ/ As in git, but with tongue pressed against palate /t/ As in tick
/h/ As in hot /u/ As oo in zoo
/ɯ/ As in open /y/ As in new
/i/ As ee in feet /ʋ/, /v/ As in vaccine
/ʒ/ As in measure /j/ As in yes
/k/, /c/ As in kit /z/ As in zigzag
/ɫ/, /l/ As in love

Early reform proposals[edit]

The earliest known Turkish alphabet is the Orkhon script. In general, Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets including Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek, Latin, and some other Asiatic writing systems.

Tauris Academic Studies Ottomans Looking West?: The Origins of the Tulip Age and its Development in Modern Turkey (Library of Ottoman Studies)
Book (Tauris Academic Studies)



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A timeline of the highest IQ person

by ever-to-live

Here is a partial list of William James Sidis' extraordinary capabilities and accomplishments:
1. Given IQ is a purely anthropocentric means of assessing intelligence, Sidis' IQ is crudely estimated at 250-300.
4. Cajoled by Boris, Billy learned to pronounce alphabetic syllables from blocks hanging in his crib.
7. Mastered higher mathematics and planetary revolutions by age 11.
8. Learned to spell efficiently by one year old.
9. Started reading The New York Times at 18 months.
10. Started typing at three. Used his high chair to reach a typewriter. First composed letter was an order for toys from Macy's

Greek islanders visit Turkey for grocery shopping  — Daily Sabah
.. many people come to Turkey from the Greek Islands including Lesbos. "Greek tourists come to Kemeraltı between 10:00 a.m. and 04:30p.m. Within this time period, they spend [quite a bit].

TTK It Began with Tulip - Lale Ile Basladi (The History of Four Centuries of Relationship Between Turkey and Netherlands in Pictures)
Book (TTK)


Min Tous Kiklous Terates

Does any body know for sure the origins of the tulip? i heard it orginated in turkey others say holland some say even persia...or china.. and where they alwasy only one colour originaly?
john..mentioned the black tulip developed in holland.i read once that sulliemayn the 2 ..attempted to grow a black tulip many times failing but at last he also reminds me of the black rose of 1,0001 arabian tales/nights..there is a famous picture of sulliyman the 2 holding a tulip the painting is a little faded on the tulip colour i swear the tulip is black but it looks red..but…

This is such an interesting question.. One more thing I learn on this site. I actually thought it was the opposite of what firecracker said. I thought that tulips were from Holland and they became famous here.. (lale devri).. Ver interesting that tulips are Ottoman, they are so popular now.. :)

What are some differences between the ottoman Tulip Period and the Dutch Tulip mania?

Ottoman Tulip Period
Lasting from 1718 to 1730, the Tulip Era was a transitory period in the Ottoman Empire that was marked by cultural innovation and new forms of elite consumption and sociability. The Tulip Era (in Turkish, Lâle Devri) coincides with the latter half of the reign of Sultan Ahmed III (ruled 1703–1730), specifically the twelve-year grand vizierate of Ahmed's son-in-law (damad), Nevşehirli Ibrahim (d. 1730). The period is known for several breakthrough achievements, including the first Muslim printing press in the empire, various innovations in the arts and urban…

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