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Turkish Literature history

A Millennium of Turkish Literature: A Concise History

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In this little book Talat Halman continues his lifelong campaign to acquaint the English-speaking public with Turkish literature. This introduction is intended for readers who know nothing about the subject and do not have the time or interest to read a more in-depth study. Inevitably, it occasionally bogs down into long lists of names, but on the whole it is surprisingly readable.

The title is perhaps a little bit misleading. Yes, Turkish literature in some form has existed for a thousand years or more. However, most of the early literature was transmitted orally for centuries and was not consigned to writing until much later. Furthermore, the term Turkish literature is used to describe works written in at least three very different forms of the Turkish language: (1) the Turkish of the common people, in which many of the best- known traditional song lyrics, proverbs, folk tales, and the scenarios of the shadow puppet and orta oyun plays were com-posed; (2) the Ottoman Turkish language of the court, which produced a rich tradition of highly stylized poetry on themes of love and mysticism, as well as scholarly treatises; and (3) the so-called Öztürkçe, or “pure Turkish”, created by the government-mandated language reform beginning in 1928. Besides changing the written form of the language from the Arabic to the Latin alphabet, this reform eliminated most Arabic and Persian words, replacing them with neologisms ostensibly based on old Turkish roots. Ottoman Turkish was unintelligible to the vast majority of the populace who were, in any case, illiterate (“the rate of literacy remained below 10 percent until the mid-1920s” [p.58]), so that all works written before that date were necessarily addressed to an elite minority. Most of the great Ottoman poets wrote poetry in Arabic and Persian as well as Turkish. Celaleddin Rumi, arguably Turkey’s greatest poet of all time, and certainly the one best known outside of Turkey, wrote almost all of his poetry in Persian. The language and alphabet reforms rendered all Turkish literature written before the 1930s—including even the speeches of Atatürk—unintelligible to all but specialized scholars. The revolutionary ideology of the Turkish Republic likewise demanded a clean break with Ottoman tradition, so Turkish authors from the 1930s on found most of their inspiration in modern Western European—especially French—literature.

The gulf separating popular oral literature from the elite literature of the court was also reflected in the values embodied in the two literary traditions. According to Halman, “one could conceivably regard the corpus of folk poetry as a massive resistance to or a constant subversion of the values adopted by the Ottoman ruling class” (p.29), while “the conformist poets, perpetuating the same norms and values century after century, offering only variations on unchanging themes, and looking to virtuosity as the highest literary virtue, wrote celebrations of the triad of the Ottoman system: dynasty, faith, and conquest” (p.44).

Historical literature in chronological order:

by mptbwhptbt

[Notice Hebrew is #6(The number of the devil)]
History of Literature
Bronze Age literature
Sumerian
Egyptian
Akkadian
Classical literatures
Chinese
Greek
Hebrew-
Latin
Pahlavi
Pali
Prakrit
Sanskrit
Syriac
Tamil
Early Medieval literature
Matter of Rome
Matter of France
Matter of Britain
Byzantine literature
Kannada literature
Persian literature
Turkish
Medieval literature
Old English
Middle English
Arabic
Byzantine
Dutch
French

U.S. Court Upholds Reality

by nowknow

Of Armenian Genocide
August 14, 2010 - Paul Williams, PhD
Fethullah Gulen, who seeks to establish a universal caliphate, is weeping again.
The radical Turkish imam, who seeks to revive the Ottoman Empire and to establish a universal caliphate, has spent millions to convince U.S. legislators and public school administrators that the Armenian holocaust of 1915 never occurred since it was a myth perpetrated by Western historians.
But Gulen’s attempt to whitewash history has been rejected by a US appeals court, which upheld a ruling that blocks schools in the state of Massachusetts from teaching literature that denies the mass killing of Armenian Christians by Ottoman Turks in 1915 as genocide

Greek islanders visit Turkey for grocery shopping  — Daily Sabah
.. many people come to Turkey from the Greek Islands including Lesbos. "Greek tourists come to Kemeraltı between 10:00 a.m. and 04:30p.m. Within this time period, they spend [quite a bit].

FAQ

rajan r
Turkish currency TURK LIRASI 10Million have ever beer banned ?

If it is banned means when it has been done ,now how can it be exchanged

I have no idea what you're talking about but I'm going on a wild goose chase.

I guess you mean when the new Turkish liras (YTL) have been introduced to replace the old turkish liras(TL)? On january 2005.

And I'm guessing you have 10 million TLs with you and you're asking if it's possible to exchange it. 10 millions makes 10ytl on the current currency so if you find a bank that'll agree to exchange you'll have 10ytl which roughly 7 dollars on today's market.

Last year there was a couple of banks still exchanging old liras (If I'm not mistaken Ziraat bankasi was one of them)…

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