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Turkish people problems

Turkey's “Turkish Problem”

Turkish coffee culture and

Coby Lubliner

I have recently read the news that Turkey’s Kurdish Workers’ Party, or PKK, has announced, following its party congress, that it is giving up armed struggle as a means and an independent Kurdistan as an end. It has also announced that it is changing its name to Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (KADEK). Whether this announcement signals the end of Turkey’s “Kurdish problem” cannot yet be answered; the Turkish government continues to regard the party, whatever its name, as a “terrorist organization.”

Be that as it may, Turkey’s “Kurdish problem” is in reality Turkey’s Turkish problem. It’s inherent in the very definition of the Turkish nation and of the modern Turkish state, whose founder, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, intended it to be a nation-state in the Western mold – that is, an entity in which citizenship of the state and membership in the nation are essentially one and the same. Official Turkish sources found on the Web state that “Turkish democracy is based on the concept of nationalism of citizenship” and “the term ‘Turkish people’ includes all Turkish citizens, whatever their ethnic roots are.”

The Turkish nation is thus defined as what political scientists have variously called a “state nation” (F. Meinecke), “political nation” (C. A. Macartney), and “territorial or civic” nation (A. D. Smith). The problem is that this, as Smith has noted, is “a peculiarly Western conception of the nation.” In the West, even where there exist national identities other than the one based on the state (as in Scotland or Catalonia), these are determined by territory, not ethnicity (with two sad exceptions: the “Catholics” of Northern Ireland and the Basques). In fact, as I have mentioned in a previous essay, all the other nationalist movements of the West explicitly reject an ethnic basis for their aspirations.

There is, of course, a touch of disingenuousness – if not hypocrisy – in the official Turkish definition. The Turks of Cyprus, as well as those of the Balkans (Bulgaria, Macedonia), are matter-of-factly accepted as part of the “Turkish people, ” though they are not “Turkish citizens.” Such inconsistency is not unprecedented: in the second half of the 19th century France, the prototypical nation-state, had to find a way of excluding its indigenous Algerian subjects (at first Muslims and Jews, later Muslims only) from French citizenship while at the same time including the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine (who became German citizens after the Franco-Prussian War) in the French nation. This trick required some verbal sophistry by jurists and philosophers, something the French are...

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Don't forget Birman, Turkish Angora,

by feralee

& Turkish Van as other naturally occurring breeds! The Turks even have some of their cats on display in zoos, and years ago it was a crime to smuggle them out of the country. A breeding pair of Birmans was given to the French ambassador in Burma before WWI nearly wiped them out.
I agree that it's awful what some people will do to breed a "different" cat, heedless of the genetic problems. And that goes for the doggies, too. How would humans look if some higher species did that to us? A 7-foot tall guy with legs 1 foot long? It's icky.

If the Pallestinian people want to become a

by NationThenThey

must take collective responsibility for the acts of all their people. A nation is a collective. And no nation can selectivly deal with individual terrorist cells operating on foreign soil. So the shell game continues, and all your whining about Israels terrible collective punishment is just another device to enable a terrorist war against Israel. You are like he back row morons in first grade who shoot spitballs and get the whole class punished and then yell the loudest over the injustice. Collective punishment is often the only method of dealing with certain problems. You actually might have a leg to stand on if there was even one influential loud voice against terrorism in Gaza

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President Gauck's inconsistent stance sparks controversy  — Daily Sabah
Prior to his speech at ODTÜ, Gauck criticized the Twitter and YouTube ban in Turkey and in Gül's response he referred to the killing of Turkish people in Germany by neo-Nazis. "Racism and Islamophobia are widespread in Europe," said Gül, who stated ..

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